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(转载)两篇奇文 一个道理  

2012-03-17 20:00:54|  分类: 教育思考 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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两篇奇文,一个道理

An Odd Student  一位奇特的学生

One day I received a call from a colleague. He was about to give a student a zero for his answer to a physical problem, while the student claimed a perfect score. The instructor and the student agreed to ask for an impartial arbiter, and I was selected. I read the examination problem: “Show how it is possible to determine the height of a tall building with the aid of a barometer.” The student had answered: “Take the barometer to the top of the building, attach a long rope to it, lower it to the street, and then bring it up, measuring the length of the rope. The length of the rope is the height of all the building.”

一天,同事打电话告诉我说,他要给一位学生的物理测验成绩判零分,可那位学生要求给他满分。师生俩决定找一位不偏不倚的裁判,于是选中了我。我看到测试题是这样的:说明怎样用气压计测出一座大楼的高度。该生的答案如下:将气压计拿到楼顶,系上长绳,再放到地面,然后收起绳子,量一下绳子的长度便知。

The student really had a strong case for full marks since he had really answered the question completely and correctly! On the other hand, if full marks were given, it could well contribute to a high grade in his physics course and certify competence in physics, but the answer did not confirm this. I suggested that the student have another try. I gave the student six minutes to answer the question with the warning that the answer should show some knowledge of physics. At the end of five minutes, he hadn’t written anything. I asked if he wished to give up, but he said he had many answers to this problem; he was just thinking of the best one. I excused myself for interrupting him and asked him to please go on. In the next minute, he dashed off his answer, which read: “Take the barometer to the top of the building and lean over the edge of the roof. Drop the barometer, timing its fall with a stopwatch. Then, using the formula, calculating the height of the building.”

这样学生的确有充分的理由得满分,因为他的回答严丝合缝准确无误。但从另一方面看,如果给满分,无疑会令他的物理成绩优异而表明他在物理学方面能力突出,但这个答案并不能证实这一点。所以,我提议该生再给出一个答案。并要求他在6分钟内答毕且具有物理学道理。五分钟过去了,他什么也没有写。我问他是否想放弃。他说他有多种答案,他在选择一个最佳的。我为打扰了他而道歉并请他继续想。在第6分钟里,他飞快地写出了答案:将气压计拿到楼顶,置其于楼顶边沿而丢下,用秒表记下其落地时间,用自由落体公式计算可知。 

At this point, I asked my colleague if he would give up. He conceded, and gave the student almost full marks. While leaving my colleague’s office. I recalled that the student had said that he had other answers to the problem, so I asked him what they were. “Well,” said the student, “there are many ways of getting the height of a tall building with the aid of a barometer. For example, you could take the barometer out on a sunny day and measure the height of the barometer, the length of its shadow, and the length of the shadow of the building, and the use of the simple proportion, determining the height of the building.”

这时,我问我的同事,“是否该你放弃了?”同事点头称是,给了该生几乎满分的分数。在离开同事办公室时,我想起该生说过他有多种答案,于是我请他一一道出。该生道:“用气压计来测量大楼高度的方法有很多。例如在阳光下,量一下气压计的高度与它的影长,再量一下高楼的影长,运用比例法算出也很简单的。”

“Fine,” I said, “and others?”

“Yes,” said the student, “There is a very basic measurement method you will like. In this method, you take the stairs, you mark off the length of the barometer along the wall. You then count the number of the marks, and this will give you the height of the building in a barometer unit.”

“很好,”我说,“还有呢?”

“还有一个最基本的方法,就是拿着气压计,顺着楼梯往上走,边走边用气压计当尺子量高楼的墙壁而得知大楼的高度。”

“A very direct method.”

“On this same tack, you could take the barometer to the top of the building, attach a long rope to it, lower it to just above the street, and then swing it as a pendulum. You could then calculate the height of the building by the period of the precession.”

“嗯,是很直接的方法。”

“还有这种做法,将气压计系上绳子从楼顶垂下让它摆动,通过计算其摆动的周期,可知楼的高度。”

“Finally,” he concluded, “there are many other ways of solving the problem.”

“Probably the best,” he said, “is to take the barometer to the basement and knock on the superintendent’s door. When the superintendent answers, you speak to him as follows, ‘Mr. Superintendent, here is a fine barometer. If you tell me the height of the building, I will give you this barometer.’”

最后他得出结论,“还有许多别的方法。”

“不过,最便捷的方法也许是拿着气压计去问大楼的管理人,‘门房先生,这是一只精美的气压计。您告诉我这大楼的高度,这气压计作您的劳务费’。”

At this point, I asked the student if he really did not know the conventional answer to this question. He admitted that he did, but said that he was fed up with high school and college instructors trying to teach him how to think.

The name of the student was Bohr who later was famous all over the world. The Dane won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1922.

这时,我问他是不是真的不知道这道题的物理学的惯常解法。他说他知道,但他说从中学到大学,老师们总是试图教他如何去思考,对此他实在感到烦透了。

这位学生便是后来闻名世界,获得1922年诺贝尔物理学奖的丹麦物理学家——玻尔。
 

钱理群与“狗”
作者  古远清

    北大名教授吴组缃当年给学生上第一堂课的内容是:“现在我给你们两个判断,你们看哪个更正确:一个判断是‘吴组缃是人’,另一个判断是‘吴组缃是狗’。”同学们都答前一个判断正确,可特立独行的钱理群反诘说:“第一个判断虽正确,但毫无价值。第二个判断尽管错误,但它逼你去想,吴组缃是狗吗?是谁骂他是狗?为什么只骂他不骂别人呢?这一想可能就会产生很多可能性。哪怕是错误的判断,但它能给你新的可能性,它也就是有创造性的。”

 

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